d2-R: Test of Attention

Authors: R. Brickenkamp, L. Schmidt-Atzert, D. Liepmann

Area of application:
The d2-R is for individual and group testing of persons aged 9-60. The test is used to assess attention and concentration in almost every field of psychology, including clinical and medical psychology, neuropsychology, educational psychology, occupational psychology, transport and organisational psychology.

General aspects:
The d2-R test is an improved version of the 9th edition of the d2 test, whose reliability has already been proven. The test can assess the level of concentration when carrying out tasks which require attention. It evaluates the ability to concentrate as well as speed and accuracy in recognising similar visual stimuli. Due to the consistent values of the test quality indicators, the simple application, and cost and time efficiency, both the d2 and the d2-R have become some of the most frequently used psychodiagnostic tests in Germany and across Europe. The new test version involves the exact same tasks as the previous version of d2, only the number of tasks administered and the test instructions have changed. The test has not yet been standardised in Russia, although the results of the German standardisation are described below.

Reliability:
Concentration ability and processing speed (number of symbols processed) are measured with a high level of accuracy (Cronbach’s Alpha ranges from .89 to .95 depending on the age group), test-retest reliability values range between .91 and .94 (1 day between administrations) or .85 and .92 (10 days between administrations).

Validity:
Validity indicators for the d2-R are impressive. As expected, correlation between test results and indicators of intelligence, achievement motivation, ability to work under pressure and high speed of motor skills are very low. Criterial validity of the test is proven across different areas of application, and it is impossible to improve or worsen the test results artificially. Special indicators help the diagnostician to determine simulated ‘low concentration’.

Duration:
Approximately 10 minutes.